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The topic of nuclear proliferation and nuclear disasters has been a contemporary issue for years since the the first nuclear warhead named “Little Boy” dropped on Hiroshima. This has brought fear about a possible nuclear fallout with now eight and the “possible” nine countries holding the essence of nuclear weapons. In this ISU the argument that will be stated is that due to the threat of nuclear war there is significant social change that is apparent. In the following paragraphs it will be highlighted that the Non-Proliferation Treaty, effects of proliferation and nuclear disasters such as the cases of Chernobyl and Hiroshima are excellent examples.
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty’s concept was to globally enforce non-proliferation, disarm and peacefully use nuclear technology. In general it was so new countries wouldn't arm and the already nuclear barring would disarm. The only use for nuclear technology was for energy and no conversions of the plant for illegal nuclear programs. Few decided to sign this treaty due to tensions within the middle east. North Korea signed but later dropped out and started to test fire. This treaty was reviewed every five years and this agreement was to originally last 25 years in total, but on May 11th 1995 the signed parties decided to continue this treaty indefinitely without conditions (un.org, 2010). This treaty has worked so far in the years its been active and has prevented wars on a larger scales and has created alliances between the nuclear barring countries. So if a non signed country was to fire then the others would come to their aid and retaliate. The largest bomb detonated was the Tsar Bomba made by the Russians in 1961 over 50 years ago during the cold war rated at 27MT. Thankfully our world has come to realize that nuclear warfare only brings destruction, and we must protect it. Prevent this monstrosity. Our world Leaders must see the impact this makes on our land and our futures they need to stop the production and spread of nuclear arms. "In this lies our only security and our only hope – we believe that an informed citizenry will act for life and not for death." -Albert Einstein Scientist for the Manhattan Project.
Once a country owns even just one nuclear warhead they instantly become one of the most powerful countries. This erupts fear or a sense of threat. A great historical example was the cold war. Russia and the United States both showed considerable examples of what nuclear threats can afflict on the consciousness of people in society one being cartoons like the 1951 Duck And Cover Bert The Turtle Civil Defence were created followed by more propaganda. The fact that neither Russia or the US actually dropped a nuclear bomb on each other really shows the “being human” statement that neither pursued the act of nuclear warfare. The impact this creates in modern warfare is unpredictable the possibility of an if could even result to a nuclear fallout or worst case a nuclear winter let alone any environmental issues. Touching upon these terms a bit more in depth to brighten the understanding. A Nuclear fallout is where is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere where it would “fall out” of the sky following a nuclear blast- this can also be known as Black Rain. Nuclear Winter on the other hand is the climate effect of nuclear war where is theorized that discharging great amounts of nuclear warheads results in cold weather and decreased sunlight for months maybe years and if it was to be dropped on places for example cites or other highly flammable materials fires would ignite releasing ash and soot into the stratosphere darkening the sky. This is only theorized because it obviously has not been done before but looking into impacts like asteroid impact or super volcanoes eruptions these compare similarities. The social change brought here is heavily based on fear or threats cause by these inhumane objects. For countries like North Korea with an illegal nuclear program they aren't taking orders they decided to create their own illegal nuclear program. Another is they decided to bomb South Korea's island Yeonpyeong killing a few soldiers and dozens of civilians also setting over 60 homes on fire. The North and South have been at at war for years and continue do so. “We hope the relevant parties do more to contribute to peace and stability on the Korean peninsula,” said a Chinese foreign ministry spokesman ( Foster, Peter, 2010). This leads into the next point of nuclear disasters.
Now with nuclear disasters like Chernobyl or the Three mile Island these effect miles around with radiation and contamination. An accidental disaster on the nuclear scale was Chernobyl. Chernobyl is the incident proclaimed in northern Ukraine where a nuclear reactor malfunctioned and exploded causing over ten thousand people to evacuate and brought sickness from contaminated areas to thousands occupants. This is history's worst nuclear reactor accidents in the 20th century's history. Some after effects of this incident are when the reactor exploded it released a cloud containing radionuclide that continued to contaminate parts of Europe (One part in particular was Belarus ) Ukraine and Russia. Thousands were exposed to radiation sickness. The first lesson that expelled from the Chernobyl incident was the direct relevance of international cooperation nuclear safety. The accident revealed a sharp difference in nuclear design and operational safety standards. It also showed that nuclear and radiological risks go beyond national borders which leads to the famous saying "An accident anywhere is an accident everywhere." Since that time, international cooperation has become a hallmark of nuclear safety, growing to new safety standards remarked as the issue continues and in innumerable peer reviews, safety upgrades, bilateral and multilateral assistance efforts, safety conventions, and the body of globally recognized IAEA safety standards. In short, what might be considered one of the few positive notes of “Chernobyl’s Legacy” is today’s global nuclear safety regime.
But it was also a lack of coordination of international efforts, in the months and years that followed the Chernobyl accident, that helped to exacerbate the social effects of the disaster. To be sure, there was an outpouring of assistance from governments and international aid organizations, with many positive healing results. But as the Chernobyl Forum report explained, “poor analysis and conflicting views regarding the health and environmental risks to affected people led to substantial unnecessary resettlement, greater economic disruption, and widespread distrust of ‘official’ information — including, distinctly, among the affected people and areas. In the twenty-six years since the accident, nature has brought back to life many of the negative effects that has come from the disaster.” (Elbaradei Mohamed, 2005). Human exposure levels in contaminated areas have decreased extensively, and will continue to drop. Nevertheless, large areas of land remain substantially contaminated for how much longer? No one can tell. Radionuclide concentrations in crops, soil and animals remain elevated, and affected humans still require attention and, in some cases, continued medical treatment. Research has found that exposed populations have shown anxiety levels calculating twice as high as an average person, with a greater occurrence of depression and stress symptoms. Regardless of great relief efforts by the affected governments and outside organizations, these populations came to explain themselves not as ‘survivors’, but as victims, helpless, weak and struggling for control over their futures. Their circumstances were getting worse by critical economic hardship, the scarce of skilled workers (mainly young adults), the difficulty in delivering social services, and the amount of misunderstandings and wrong ideas regarding health risks. As in the end, poverty, mental health issues, and life threatening diseases have come to stand a far greater threat to affected close communities than radiation exposure.
The third impact mentioned is the massive influence of the Chernobyl accident on the nuclear industry. ten years prior to the accident at Three Mile Island had already showed uncertainty on the ability of nuclear power plant operators to prevent any more serious accidents. Chernobyl had expanded greater that it's impact; the accident stated itself on public consciousness as proof that nuclear safety was an over exaggerated expression . Some countries decided to reconsider the fact of further construction of nuclear programs, and the expansion of nuclear capacity came to a near standstill. It has taken nearly twenty years of hard work to extend these awful safety performances to correct the industry’s reputation. Chernobyl today has changed a lot but it's mainly a tourist attraction and has had many foundations trying to rebuild what was once left behind. Chernobyl unit 4 is now surrounded by a large concrete bunker which was erected quickly six months after the explosion to allow the remaining reactors at the plant to be operated. The bunker built is not certainly made to withstand anymore explosions considering its working conditions. The international Shelter Implementation Plan in the 1990s involved fund raising for repairing including removal of the fuel-containing or contaminated materials. Most major work on the shelter was constructed in 1998 and 1999. Expected 200 tonnes of highly radioactive material- enough to destroy roughly all of Europe, still lays deep within the facility, and this erupts an environmental hazard until it has been dealt with (iaea.org 2000).
In conclusion the topic of nuclear proliferation continues to be a main international issue, and a concern to anyone. Society would be completely different if nuclear weapons were to be disarmed and decreased. This would cause consequences within countries, because they would have to find a new source of threatening power. If nuclear weapon technology was limited, weapon threats, unnecessary tensions between countries, and hostile nuclear actions would cease to exist, and today's society would be a very different place.Nuclear proliferation and social change can be proven by discussing examples such as the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the proliferation effects of nuclear weapons and the nuclear disasters of Chernobyl, Hiroshima.

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Broad, W. Sanger, D. & Bonner, R. (2004) A Tale of Nuclear Proliferation: How Pakistani Built His Network. The New York Times. Retrieved, October 21, from http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/12/international/asia/12NUKE.html?hp.


This article briefly explains the limits on control of nuclear weapons and how US officials and members of the US want to restrict certain laws and production of nuclear fuel. Also this is explains the Network created by Abdul Qadeer Khan which had three main customers Iran, North Korea and Libya. This all started in 1980's when Abdul ordered twice the amount of nuclear supplies that they needed and sold them on this market he soon created.


Rosenberg, J. (n.d.) The Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. About.com Guide. Retrieved, October 21, from http://history1900s.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/hiroshima.htm


This article goes into great detail on the bombings if Nagasaki and Hiroshima anywhere from the type of plane to the death toll of this sad tragedy. The social change here is how the US can cause such a disaster after the defeat of a country and for most reasons get away with it. The impact brought upon this great nation and how they will have to stay together to rebuild. Is this something can just be “forgiven?” killing millions and destroying almost everything. Its hard to say.



Babst, D. & Krieger, D. (1997) Consequences of Using Nuclear Weapons. Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. October 21, from https://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/1997/00/00_babst_consequences.php


This article shows the after effects of nuclear warfare in which worst case scenarios could occur. It contains quotes from Generals and Court Officials. Two main points I would like to point out in this article are two definitions Environmental Pollution and Nuclear Winter. Both terms could result to a nuclear fallout. Environmental Pollution could be where if an atomic bomb was dropped it alone radiates the area for miles ruining all crop soil and land in general but imagine that plus fields in that area containing contagions, poisons or to the worst extent chemical or biological weapons. Everything would just settle for years upon years. A Nuclear Winter is almost the same, where on a scale 100 megatons were to set off thousands of fires would erupt in flames and smoke to ash causing a – Nuclear winter.


Habibi, N ( 2006) Impact of Nuclear Empowerment on Domestic Political Developments in Iran. Payvand Iran News. Retrieved October 21, from

http://www.payvand.com/news/06/mar/1192.html


This article explains how Iran struggles to face the nuclear empowerment such as their neighbour Pakistan or more frightening The United States. Afghan Taliban killed Diplomats of Iran and they returned but starting uproars and setting military posts around its borders but Nuclear Pakistan supports the Taliban putting them in fear. Just by being a country with nuclear weapons can strike fear as terrifying as Hitlers rein.



ElBaradei, M. (2005) The Enduring Lessons of Chernobyl. IAEA.org. Retrieved October 21, from http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/statements/2005/ebsp2005n008.html


This article talks all about the incident proclaimed in northern Ukraine where a nuclear reactor malfunctioned and exploded causing over 100000 people to evacuate and brought sickness from contaminated areas to thousands occupants. The main points this article covers are the physical impacts, the health and environmental issues, and the psychological and social impacts. This is stated one the worst nuclear reactor accidents in the 20th century's history.


Department for Disarmament Affairs, United Nations (2005) Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons NPT. un.org, Retrieved November 26, from http://www.un.org/en/conf/npt/2005/npttreaty.html

This sub title site explains everything the treaty is about from when it started, for how long and in descriptive detail what it goes for as a treaty. This talks about how countries should disarm and no new countries should arm. I found this very useful in my essay because it made it easy to show change and how people were brought together also showing how really “human” people are. This site belongs to the UN and I find that valid and trust worthy.

Foster, P. (2010) The Telegraph. Telegraph.co.uk retrieved November 26, from

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/southkorea/8153000/North-Korea-bombs-South-Koreas-Yeonpyeong-Island.html

This news article talks about North Korea randomly deciding to bomb a South Korean island. It gives death tolls, injured damaged property and the after effects. This also talks about the tensions between them and what more it has created for example the US's issue with NK's illegal nuclear program. This shares some quotes mode by Obama and locals, police and government on what they are to do with NK.